Karl Landsteiner, Blood Group Inventor

The inventor of blood group is Karl Landsteiner, was born in Vienna, June 14, 1868.

He is a scientist in the field of bio-treatment. He was awarded Nobel Prize for Medicine and Fisiologi field in 1930. This is because the classification of all types of blood into four namely; A, B, AB, and O in the year 1909.

Landsteiner married with Helen Wlasto in 1916. Before marriage, he was the son of a former judge who is also famous journalist. He got in a degree of medical education at the University of Vienna.

Until the year 1891, he published the paper studies about the influence of diet on blood composition.

To go learn more about chemicals, Landsteiner continue his lesson in Zurich and also in Munich for five years. Then he was working with many scientists like Prof. A. Weichcelbaum who found the bacteria that cause meningitis. And Fraenckel who found pneumococcosis.

Until 1919, after 20 years working in the field of pathological anatomy, Landsteiner successfully published many research. Especially on the morbid anatomy and immunization. Moreover, he also found that immunization of factors which is named "hapten".

He also doing some research about paroksismal hemoglobinuria (paroxysmal haemoglobinuria). Results indicate punca poliomielitis (Poliomyelitis) may be moved to inoculate monkeys with the material supplied from the spine of children who die due to this disease.

Landsteiner actually contribute a lot in the field of pathological anatomy, histology, and immunology. He also became Professor Emeritus in 1939 on Intsitut Rockfeller. He died on 24 June 1943 after a heart attack.

Alexander Fleming, Inventor of Penicillin

Alexander Fleming, penicillin inventor, born in 1881 in Lochfield, Scotland.

After finishing St. Mary Medical School St. Mary in London, Fleming start to study about body immunity.
Later, as the army doctors in the Second World War-1, he learned the particulars wound infection, and he found that many antiseptic damage body cells more than a bacteria.

Fleming realize, what is needed is something to kill the bacteria but does not dangerous and harmful to human body cells.

After the war, Fleming returned to the St. Mary hospital. In 1922, he found something what he call lysozyme. Lysozyme is an enzyme found in egg white, tears, and other secretions. It is responsible for breaking down the polysaccharide walls of many kinds of bacteria and thus it provides some protection against infection. Lysozyme will kill certain bacteria, but unfortunately not effective on the specific bacteria that is dangerous for people. What he just found, however interesting, did not have a great meaning.

Year 1928 finally Fleming find something meaningful. In his laboratory he breeds a bacteria called "Staphylococcus", and it is left open in the air. Fleming found in the area around the contamination, the bacteria become liquid. He quickly concluded that the decomposition produce the toxic substance that harmful to "Staphylococcus". Immediately he was able to show that the substance is similar to the growth of various types of harmful bacteria. The substance of that - which is named after the incident penicilin decomposition (penicillium notatum) - is harmful for people and animals.

Fleming invention was announced in 1929, but initially did not attract much attention. Fleming revealed that the penicilin have important meaning for treatment. However, Fleming himself can not develop techniques to purify penicilin, and more than ten years something that is very valuable remain displaced.

Finally, at the end of the 1930's, two British medical field investigator, Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain finds Fleming’s invention. They re-examine Fleming’s invention and make clearer results. They then purify penicilin, try it in the animals laboratory. Year 1941 they tried penicillin to people who suffer pain. Their experiment clearly prove that the penicilin is a very potential medicine.

United Kingdom and the United States govenment, encourage the drug manufacturer to produce penicillin in large-scale. Initially, penicillin is provided for free use only for the victims of war, but then in the year 1944 can be used by civil society in the UK and the United States.

When the war finished in 1945, the use of penicillin has spread throughout the world.

Discovery of penicillin greatly escalate other antibiotics investigations but, penicillin remains the antibiotic of the most widely used.

Penicillin effective against various micro-organisms that is dangerous. Penicillin are useful to cure syphilis, gonorrhea, diphtheria, as well as various kinds of arthiritis, bronchitis, scarlet, lever, gangrene, and more.

Other benefits of penicillin is relatively safe in use. Dose of 50,000 units of penicillin made effective against various infections. Injection of 100 million units of penicillin a day did not cause any effect. Although reported a small amount of the penicillin allergy, penicillin still widely spread around the world.

Since penicillin has saved millions of lives and people will save more lives in the future, very few people understand the different meanings of the discovery of penicillin. The right place for Fleming in the list of this sequence depends, of course, to how much people give meaning to the role given by Florey and Chain. Without Fleming, it takes time to find the penicillin. Once he announced his invention, sooner or later there will be a perfection by somebody else.

Fleming marry and live happy with one child. In 1945 he was given for the Nobel Prize, and share the prize to Florey and Chain. He died in the year of 1955.

The Adi Dassler Story

Adolf Dassler was inspired by a single idea when he made his first shoes in 1920, at the age of just 20. His vision was to provide every athlete with the best footwear for his respective discipline. It was this principle that guided him right up until his death in 1978. 700 patents and other industrial property rights worldwide are proof of his permanent quest for perfection.

A passionate athlete himself, from the very beginning Adi Dassler was in close contact with sports participants and was always present in person at important sports events. He focused his work on the classic disciplines of track and field. Athletes wore special shoes from his workshop for the first time at the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam. In the mid 1920s he was already experimenting with spikes.

In the mid 1930s Adi Dassler was already making 30 different shoes for eleven sports, and he had a workforce of almost 100 employees. In less than two decades adidas advanced to become the world’s leading sports shoe manufacturer. After the turmoil of the Second World War, Adi Dassler made a fresh start. In 1947, with 47 workers, he began putting into practice the knowledge gained from the prewar period and also new ideas. Adi Dassler made the first post-war sports shoes using canvas and rubber from American fuel tanks. In 1948 he introduced adidas as the company name, a combination of his own first and last name. One year later he registered the - to this day - unmistakable Three Stripes.

The breakthrough came for Adi Dassler when Germany won the Soccer World Cup in 1954. In the legendary Final against Hungary, the German team wore boots with screw-in studs – by adidas.

Parallel to the rapid developments in sport, Adi Dassler strove to specialize and optimize his products. Adi Dassler was the first entrepreneur to use sports promotion in order to make the public aware of his innovations. He started using well-known athletes as advertising for his products. Many famous athletes such as Jesse Owens, Muhammad Ali, Max Schmeling, Sepp Herberger and Franz Beckenbauer counted themselves among the friends of the Dassler Family. Aggressive publicity became one of the cornerstones of his corporate policy. From now on, Adi Dassler came up with a product innovation for every major event, documenting the superiority of adidas footwear. In constant contact with active athletes in a wide variety of disciplines, he developed the optimal shoe for almost every sport.

From the mid 1960s, adidas also started producing apparel for competition and training. Ball production began in 1963, and ever since 1970 the Official Matchball at all major soccer events has been an adidas product. Adi Dassler died in 1978, at the age of 78.

Carrying on his heritage and his ideas, his name and his developments will continue to help athletes in their efforts to push the limits of performance, on into the new millennium.